Leading the Way – an experiment in

 The role of satellite and community cable was not widespread in 1987 when the town of Pasadena (a small rural community of 3000 residents in Western Newfoundland) began what became a five year experiment to “Awaken the Entrepreneurial Spirit” of the local area.  Being Economic Development Officer at the time afforded me the opportunity to participate in the experiment from its tentative beginnings to its ultimate success.

The move to television, video and subsequently satellite and community cable evolved from a continuing effort to build local and regional community capacity, understanding of opportunities, and awareness of the new economic realities.  Its roots can be traced to the late 1970’s when Pasadena began a thrust to develop its economy and to participate more fully in the regional economic development process.


Community Development has conventionally been thought of in terms of either social development or economic development.  While education has been a component in this process, it has seldom been treated as a fundamental and it has usually been relegated to workshops, seminars and community college or university courses. Its intrinsic value to the development process is not generally recognized.

There is a growing understanding and appreciation that broad-based community education has to become an important component of community and economic development. Indeed, the need to start an education process that reaches beyond community leaders and development practitioners is being recognized as one of the real challenges in development. The dramatic structural change that is being necessitated by the advances in technology and information is responsible for this awakening.

We have tools that are very much under-utilized in addressing these issues – tools that could speed up the process and ensure a more wide-spread understanding of issues and opportunities surrounding us. Television along with satellite communications and our telecommunications infrastructure provides such opportunities.

Television has traditionally been treated as an entertainment vehicle and sometimes as an information-sharing instrument.  Its use as an educational tool has been limited most often to the conventional education mediums of lectures and presentations.  The pervasive role television has played in shaping modern society’s values, expectations, and understanding of issues has not been given significant consideration. If television can influence our very fundamental values why is it not used to positively affect people’s education and understanding of development issues?

Television is most often either technically-driven, information-driven, or academically-driven.  The power of the medium is not fully realized by those who use or control it. The technical people who often have control are primarily interested in the development of the technically-advanced operations. Programming and its impact are secondary. When conventional broadcasters are in charge, the pursuit is information-dissemination or entertainment. Viewing audiences are important; psychological considerations are not. Academics who get control of the medium envision it as an extension of themselves and usually only utilize it to deliver lectures, rarely seeing its inter-communications capabilities.

If the same effort were put into the educational value of the medium, then its true potential might be realized: a tool to affect positively people’s attitudes, values and understanding of their environment, opportunities and the growing integration of global economic issues.

There have been disparate and varied efforts over the years to enhance the role of television as an educational tool and development instrument.  The advent of Satellite Communications and modern telecommunications networks has vastly improved its usage and its role.  The relative simplicity of the technology makes it possible for local people to have more direct involvement and control of the technology and to participate more fully in its impact. Through this imaginative use local issues and needs can be more fully addressed.

A Community Case

Film and television broadcasting have been utilized by Memorial University of Newfoundland for many years as an educational and development tool.  Its role in community re-development has been tested and documented in small communities in several areas of the province.

The role of satellite and community cable was not widespread in 1987 when the town of Pasadena (a small rural community of 3000 residents in Western Newfoundland) began what became a five year experiment to “Awaken the Entrepreneurial Spirit” of the local area.  Being Economic Development Officer at the time afforded me the opportunity to participate in the experiment from its tentative beginnings to its ultimate success.

The move to television, video and subsequently satellite and community cable evolved from a continuing effort to build local and regional community capacity, understanding of opportunities, and awareness of the new economic realities.  Its roots can be traced to the late 1970’s when Pasadena began a thrust to develop its economy and to participate more fully in the regional economic development process.

Several happenings in the community were key in Pasadena’s search for economic development and diversification. These occurrences included the development of the community’s two privately-developed industrial parks, the appointment of an Economic Development Committee and its subsequent pursuit of an Industrial Incubator.

What evolved coincided with a much broader based regional economic development experiment that was also the result of several dynamics.  These included the following: economic threats to larger communities in the region; an approach to regional cooperation through a group of key players with similar chemistry and complementary thinking; influence from new players who had moved into the area; and a growing realization that cooperation and regionalization were important components of any development process.

The development effort began with a “reaching-out” process which encouraged more global thinking and more proactive local action.  It had its true beginnings in a partnership arrangement among the four more major communities who from the first combined their efforts to participate in a major marketing effort at a provincial trade show.  The chemistry of this group produced the realization that we enjoyed working together and that there was much merit in our joint efforts.  We quickly realized that marketing was only one aspect of economic development. The need to learn the other aspects of the development process and to identify how others approached such activities became evident.

The reaching-out process led us to other parts of Canada and eventually to Europe and the United Kingdom.  Each experience was considered a learning experience with evaluations of economic development processes; insights were sought into new and developing trends in these business environments. Also included – where possible – were meetings with former residents of the province of Newfoundland.  An excellent network of contacts and resource people resulted.

The next challenge came from both a desire and a realization that broader awareness of these issues within the communities was essential.  This led the participants to develop a series of broadly-based workshops for our community development and business participants.  These were organized and evolved into fairly large scale activities accompanied by promotional campaigns and diverse community and business financial participation.  A variety of media was utilized to promote the efforts and share the knowledge gleaned.  Examples included written and video reports, tabloids and a book ( Doing Business in Western Newfoundland ). Many experts and resource people from outside the area and province were utilized in the events.  The learning was exceptional, the synergy quite dynamic and the environment for development enhanced.

Concurrent with these other activities was the development of the province’s first industrial incubator in this rural community.  After a seven-year effort to develop and solicit funding for the concept, it was built and opened.  These development years had taught the key organizers and developers many lessons about incubators, development and, as important, external issues which would impact on the local economy.

We had developed a philosophy of operation based on three key components of the Incubator concept. First, as with most such facilities, there was the building and its ability to provide low cost rental accommodation and support services such as secretarial and business support. Second, there was a community-education component through which we hoped to encourage local and regional residents to look at entrepreneurship and business as an option  (and, as well, providing tenants for the rental facility over the long term). Third, there was the realization that local financial support was an imperative to launching new business ventures and encouraging a local “buying into” the concept of local economic development.

Providing infrastructure was only part of the process. Development involved a variety of components, chief among which was the realization that the development process involved human awareness, education and participation.  We also realized that participation in such workshops and promotional activities had to be broadened in order to involve as many people in the community as possible.

Based on previous experience, we felt that perhaps video could provide a tool to enhance our efforts – broadening our awareness and laying the foundation for further education and participation.  An examination of developed video material indicated that basic entrepreneurship and business awareness material was not readily available.  There also was consensus among the organizing committee that local case studies and participation might augment any process.

So, with these fundamentals in mind, a concept entitled “Awakening Entrepreneurial Spirit” was designed.  The basic concept had three components: the development of a locally-based, awareness-oriented video series; the use of television to introduce and share these videos with the communities in our region; and subsequently the delivery of a series of video-based workshops throughout the region.

There were ten basic goals established for the project which evolved over an eighteen month process:


1.         Increase the awareness of the contribution which small business makes toward job creation.

2.         Increase the number of people showing an interest in starting businesses.

3.         Create an awareness of the forms of business structures available.

4.         Increase awareness of how local people can play a role in the development and support of small business.

5.         Encourage the participation of youth in activities that will make them more aware of the role of small business in the economy and of how they might become involved in business.

6.         Encourage educational and other agencies to provide training and educational opportunities for the development of skilled entrepreneurs.

7.         Increase awareness of the forms and sources of support available to business entrepreneurs in starting, maintaining, or expanding a business.

8.         Develop a supply of resource materials to be used during the project and made available in the region for similar uses in the future.

9.         Develop local expertise in the use of local television as a tool for development.

10.  Evaluate how locally-based educational television can be used effectively in the region.

As well as these key goals, there were other more subtle issues that were addressed as well, among which was the desire to develop better linkages between the local community and others in the region and the development of the industrial incubator as a centre for entrepreneurship with support throughout the region. The understanding of these issues was facilitated by the organization of a broad-based regional committee which would provide resource people, program evaluators and community stimulators.

The search for funds and partnership arrangements with Memorial University (who had the technical expertise) were, while time-consuming, learning processes for the participants.  Within eighteen months funds were provided by Employment and Immigration Canada through a program called Innovations.

Five local people with little background in video production were employed. Their challenge was to develop a series of videos which would demonstrate what it is that business is all about and what role it really plays in the community economics.  The how was to be left until later for other workshops. It was agreed to use as a backdrop, people throughout the region who were involved in small business activities.  Eventually twenty-five profiles were developed.  To heighten the message and ensure a professional quality product, we enlisted the services of well-known Canadian Actor Gordon Pinsent who agreed to narrate the video series.

The production of the seven series video was carried out over a six month period with all filming taking place on site with the individuals who were profiled.  The intent was to build on the history of the region and its entrepreneurship and indicate the present state of this particular aspect of development.  It was also decided to feature youth and women as non-traditional areas of entrepreneurial activity.  With this part of the project in hand, our efforts then shifted to the use of television as a medium to highlight the project, the videos and the role of entrepreneurship.

While this component again became a learning process for those of us who were novices in the use of video and television, it also led the experts in new directions.  Initial evaluation of the state of television broadcasting and cablevision in the region indicated that we faced a difficult process in using conventional television methods.  First and foremost the context of our program, its thrust and length of time, negated our use of commercial broadcasting stations. Although the area was widely covered by cable television, it was virtually impossible to connect all communities simultaneously using telecommunications linkages.  It was felt that a series of programs would be impossible to organize and not conducive to the dynamic we wished to generate.

The suggestions by our group of utilizing satellite to connect together the communities at first raised a degree of scepticism and even disbelief among those expert in the field.  However, research led to a realization that not only was it technically possible but financially within our grasp.

Negotiations were begun with Telesat, a Canadian company, which controlled satellite broadcasting activities.  It was agreed that we would need to rent a portable satellite transmitter and purchase a block of satellite time. Interestingly enough, the whole arrangement was carried out over the telephone and official contracts were developed and entered into.  What emerged was a process of trust between the organizers and the satellite company – an interesting accomplishment for a small community dealing with a large national company.

Thus, Phase Two of the process was begun with only four months until air time.  We agreed that there were two types of educational needs –  one for the conventional education system  relevant to young people; and the other (in the broader context of community) relevant to the adult population.  It was also recognized that in order for our program to be successful, we needed an audience and we needed participation.

We had come to the conclusion early on in this process that the message was not the medium, i.e., the videos and broadcast were not end-products in themselves but dynamics in a much broader awareness and development process.  Our aim was to fulfil the goals which we had originally established; videos and broadcasts were secondary considerations.  Television would be the tool to draw the communities together and share learning experience.

We began a process of designing a television production that was to be delivered by satellite, was participatory in nature and interactive by design.  The encouragement of audience participation  plus interaction between the education system and community became our main marketing tools.  Events in schools, community socials, personal profiles became the foundation for our program.  Our video programs were to provide the focal points for panel discussions which were meant to be the awareness and educational components of the program.  The eventual outcome of our planning exercises was an eleven-hour television production based in community and region with a thrust towards awareness and education and targeted to entrepreneurship and business.

This event, scheduled for January 24, 1988, provided many other challenges because of the timing and constraints of winter.  The use of satellite allowed dimensions which we had neither thought of nor accounted for. Satellite provided access to people far removed from our communities.  Interactivity took on new dimensions with calls received from as far away as Florida, Colorado, Vancouver and Toronto.

This improved the dynamic of our program considerably as people realized the true scope of this activity.  Local people participated via the studio audience and telephone. The program was flexible, allowing us to cut and fit as necessary.  One individual who saw the program drove approximately 45 kilometres to share his craft-oriented business with our viewers.  He was obviously welcomed and he provided a most interesting interview.

The participation by community groups and individuals was astounding.  The creation of a studio in the industrial centre required much support.  The local fire brigade  built the set used for the event; a local clergyman painted the backdrop; the local technical college provided its electrical class; the community college sent its television journalism class.  This coupled with other assistance which came from many sectors of the community and the region allowed the program to be developed.  Our hosts and panellists were all local, many of whom had never appeared on television before.  Our goal of participation and interaction exceeded our expectations.

Independent evaluations and data-gathering indicated that viewing- audience participation exceeded 70%.  Other components of our learning through this evaluation process will be addressed later in this paper.

The dynamics of a live and interactive television program, locally based, had worked.  The video production was well received; our introduction to  satellite broadcasting surpassed our aims.

Then began Phase Three – developing workshops and activities that would employ the material developed and building on the synergy that had been created in the region through the telecast.  Our involvement in the schools had opened a variety of doors; workshops and presentations were organized and conducted.  Our television experience encouraged us to develop a series of programs for broadcasting on commercial media.  Eventually Atlantic Satellite Network broadcast 11 programs (6 half-hour and 5 one-hour segments) on their educational time slot throughout the Atlantic region.  As part of this phase of activity, Community workshops were held but participation was not extensive, further demonstrating to us that video and television were much better tools for reaching out into communities and encouraging public participation.  Exploratory work also begun on developing curriculum material for use in the educational system with the hope that somehow the system would utilize our material and approaches.

Simultaneously, a number of other benefits from our activities evolved.  Interest in the video series was forthcoming from post secondary educational institutions across Canada (approximately 250 videos were distributed).  The Newfoundland Government saw fit to use the series as educational resource material in all of its schools. There were invitations to participate in national and international workshop and conferences.  One particular opportunity allowed us to participate in a European Commission project Broadcasting for Employment which included presentations in Birmingham (England) and Madrid (Spain) and featured our project in final reports and video presentations.  Such promotions in the community, in the region and in a more global context became a side-benefit which we had not contemplated.

The awareness and understanding of the dynamic of television which was generated within our committee, and the overall positive experience led us to plan a next step.  While the committee felt that it had stimulated the community, provided exposure to local happenings, effected a truly community learning experience and linked with the outside world, it agreed that our next experience must include a more global activity.  A process which involved linking with another country via satellite was explored and developed.  “Thinking locally and acting globally” became a key component of the project called Employment Through Community Development.

The key players who had coordinated the first project were still interested  and involved.  They began exploring this new concept, establishing new goals, developing a project and seeking funding.

The goals for the project were established as follows:

1.         Share local knowledge and economic development activities.

2.         Introduce to our region innovative economic development methods.

3.         Relate how rural areas in another country have coped and sought to overcome high unemployment.

4.         Show innovative methods of community self-help.

5.         Promote our area in Great Britain, as well as in other areas of Canada.

6.         Provide education and training for staff and committee members, not only in the field of television as a medium for education, but in methods and approaches to self-help training.

7.         Enhance the local development process.

8.         Broaden horizons and understanding of our area residents to their own potential and capabilities, as well as the strengths of the region.

9.         Build local self confidence – an important factor in self-reliance – thus creating job opportunities through local initiatives.

10.       Demonstrate the effectiveness of television to effect these goals.

The search for a partner became the next challenge.  It was agreed that new parameters were probably necessary: The partner should be foreign and distant in order to provide a true test of learning;  there should be language and cultural compatibility.  The identification of such an area which was also actively pursuing community initiatives led us to look at Britain.  Previous research and involvement indicated that novel and innovative development approaches were taking place, and the language and culture ties were obvious.

Again this project would have several components with a satellite television exchange only one dynamic.  The exchange process was considered key, with activities between schools, development agencies and social groups being prerequisites to a successful process.  Local community network development, school participation and workshops were all considered important activities in helping to develop local people’s understanding both of their area and of the importance of business to the economy.  Outside examples would demonstrate this lesson and deepen our conviction that we could do it ourselves.

First came the task of soliciting funding and searching for a partner.  Obviously our previous success and track record became assets in accessing funds from federal agencies.  Our participation in the European broadcasting project gave us our first opportunity to seek a partner as travel to Britain was granted; the project participants provided us with networking opportunities.  As well, previously established networks in Britain provided many contacts.  In particular, a relationship with William Roe of CEI Consultants, a non-profit, consulting group from Edinburgh, Scotland was an invaluable starting point which opened many doors and enlarged our network.

In building the case for funding we began with the Employment and Immigration Commission – again under the Innovations Program.  Although the Commission was receptive, many rules had changed and a lobbying effort was required.  Support was garnered from a cross section of Federal Government Departments and Provincial Agencies.  This support became an important tool to leverage our funding.

A trip to Ottawa was required to solidify this support. This mission included a variety of presentations and discussions and on one occasion we even had to rent a television and VCR and bring it to the office of one of the people we were lobbying to ensure that the proper message was received.  Eventually, major funding did come from Employment and Immigration Canada and the Atlantic Canada Opportunities Agency.  As the project continued to evolve, additional funding was also forthcoming from the Municipality, Memorial University and the Canadian Broadcasting Corporation.

The search for a partner took a much more complicated path.  Our initial foray into the United Kingdom provided a tentative agreement with a development group in Scotland.  After eight months of discussions and interaction they decided that because of a changing focus and budgetary considerations, they had to withdraw.  This was the first of many setbacks which occurred throughout this project.

Fortunately, as part of our efforts to find a partner, alternate plans had been explored and other discussions held.  A group from Northern Ireland expressed an interest in participating.  They became aware of our project through another member of our network, John Ecclestone, a broadcast consultant from England.  John had been a key person in the broadcasting for Employment project in Europe and was very keen on our activities.  Subsequent meetings, first in London and then in Newfoundland, led to an agreement in principle and a negotiation process that spanned over a year.

With our goals and aims developed, we came to the realization that now we had to accommodate another group.  The Irish Partners had some similar ambitions but primarily wished to use the Satellite production as a marketing effort.  The group included a number of players which further complicated the effort and included a broadcast consultant Derrick Murray, who became their main negotiator.

Finalization of details for the telecast took more than a year and involved a visit to Newfoundland by an Irish Delegation and a reciprocal visit to Ireland by a delegation representing our organization.  The remainder of the negotiations was carried out using telephone, fax and conference calls.  Obviously the work was complex and included a variety of partners on both sides of the Atlantic.  The involvement of CBC was most beneficial but again took much negotiation.  The requirement for prominent hosts led us to develop a list and seek the services of Adrienne Clarkson who graciously accepted and participated in several aspects of our project besides the actual telecast.

In all, there were ten (10) partners as outlined below:

1.         The International Fund for Ireland (IFI), established by the British and Irish governments in 1986, receives contributions from the United States, Canada, New Zealand, and the European Community.  Its objectives are:

(a)        to promote economic and social advance, and

(b)        to encourage contact, dialogue and reconciliation between nationalists and unionists throughout Ireland.

2.         Ulster Television – an independent television station in Belfast, Northern Ireland.

3.         The Local Enterprise Development Unit (LEDU) has evolved from modest beginnings in 1971 into the Small Business Agency for Northern Ireland.  Its primary objective is to maximize employment by stimulating the survival and growth of business in the small firms sector.

Our partners in Canada included:

1.         Employment and Immigration Canada (EIC) and The Atlantic Canada Opportunities Agency (ACOA) – our principal funders for the project. Both are Federal Government Agencies.

2.         The Canadian Broadcasting Corporation  (CBC) –  program co-producers and broadcaster.

3.         Memorial University Department of Educational Technology – a technical division of this Newfoundland University – participated as program co-producers.

4.         Adrienne Clarkson – a national television personality who acted as our host and resource person.  (The Irish partners had as their host a nationally known personality in Ireland.)

5.         The Canadian Parliamentary Channel – The organization which operates the national television channel broadcasting parliamentary debate.

6.         Cable Atlantic – The local cable television company which, with studio and technical support, provided us the opportunity to do much of our local-awareness programming.

7.         Telesat Canada – Owners and operators of satellite television broadcasting capabilities.

Negotiating with these partners was only one aspect of this process.  As outlined earlier there were a number of components which we hoped to utilize to build on our previous project.  School presentations were continued, curriculum development pursued, community profiles developed and exchange efforts developed.  As with any project some aspects of these activities worked better than others.

A real breakthrough happened in our school efforts with a request by a local school board in Port au Port, Newfoundland, to assist in developing an entrepreneurial pilot project.  Working with the local teachers and school board officials young people who were considered possible candidates for school leaving were introduced to the concept of entrepreneurship, business planning and opportunity development. Again video material was an integral part of the process as these young people were guided through a business development and planning exercise. The result was a very successful pilot and the development of a written curriculum package.  This effort proved to be one of the catalysts which led to the establishment of entrepreneurship education pilots in schools throughout Newfoundland.

The success of previous television programs, which were aired on the Atlantic Satellite Network encouraged us to look at the local Cable Network as another mechanism to enhance community education.  65 half-hour productions were developed and aired, each profiling local community and entrepreneurial activities.

Besides the local activities which were very much part of the building process, negotiations with our Irish Partners were arduous and provided a real learning experience for those involved.

There were numerous constraints and complexities throughout the whole process.  Our inability to establish extensive exchange activities was  affected with the departure a key LEDU development specialist very early in the project.  Political considerations which were relative to the Northern Ireland situation restricted some project components which might have enhanced such a process.  Throughout the whole  project there were constant challenges.  Accessing participation by CBC, selecting and negotiating a contract with our host, obtaining agreement with the multitude of partners and monitoring and ensuring suitable program format and content as well as adequate funding considerations were but a few of the hurdles.

The negotiations for satellite time and appropriate linkages proved most interesting as again we were dealing with representatives on both sides of the Atlantic.  At one juncture we were optimistic about getting free-access time through special arrangements with a joint European/Canadian Satellite project but this hope did not materialize and we had to regroup. With the gracious support of Paul Fournier of Telesat Canada final coordination and technical arrangements were accomplished.  (See diagrams in Appendix A).

One particular incident near the telecast day caused us all some  apprehension.  Our Irish partners had become concerned with financial considerations and indicated they were seriously considering cancelling this project.   With less than a month to air time, contracts in place and much money  expended, such an event would have been catastrophic for all.  A strong message to our negotiating partners and representation by E. J. O’Connell, the Canadian Observer to the International Fund, helped resolve the issue.  This did cause some changes to be made, such as the agreement to have representatives from Newfoundland and Ireland participate in the reciprocal productions in both studies.  We, in fact, sent five representatives to their studio but they decided against tis approach and the additional exchange capabilities were unfortunately lost.

As in the case of our first project, intensive evaluations were carried out during this second one.  The learning process was enhanced and techniques developed that could assist others wishing to utilize television in such  Community Education and Development projects.  To ensure proper understanding of what had transpired and what lessons had been learned we felt it imperative to provide detailed documentation.

A variety of learning experiences (some anticipated, some not) resulted from our projects:

1.         Television can provide a real dynamic in any education or development process.  (It should be noted that development efforts must precede any television production if you are to achieve the dynamic impact.)

2.         Interactive communications are important in this type of learning experience.

3.         Youth play a very dramatic role in influencing adults in any community.

4.         Television is most effective as an educational tool if messages are subtle and interpsersed with subjects of community interest.

5.         When properly encouraged, people will actively participate in (yes, even enjoy) video television activities.

6.         Technically and Economically, television can be an effective tool if used as a dynamic – it must be a stepping stone in a more comprehensive        process.

7.         Broadcasters and media people can be shown innovative approaches to television usage.

8.         Young people are much less intimidated and more open to television that is used in education projects.

9.         Exchange programs can be enhanced through the dynamic of TV communications.  (This is where interactive communications plays a significant role.)

10.       Television can be effectively used to increase knowledge levels on many subjects.

11.       Television and video, utilized in a community format, is very much a confidence-builder for local residents.

12.       Television provides people with a different perspective to look at themselves and their environment.

13.       Video programs developed on a local level and for local usage can be of interest to other communities – even to those in foreign countries.

14.       Community Cable provides an inexpensive tool for community education.

15.       People know and understand very little about the environment in which they live.

16.       The use of high profile resource people as focal points enhances the local perception of community-based television.



The role of television in shaping modern society has been phenomenal.  Unfortunately, because of its use as an entertainment tool, television has generated many misconceptions about real life.  Frequently it is a barrier to human and community development.

Too often people perceive the world as it is portrayed in the programs they watch.  What they see does not fit their own environment or that of the areas portrayed in these productions.  As a result, values are lost, cynicism is created and disillusionment occurs.  Current approaches to journalism have further facilitated this process of misunderstanding and caused surreal expectations.  The present dynamics of visual newscasts and current- affairs programs tend to promote the spectacular and the sensational, creating imbalance and often misinterpretation of what is really happening and giving impressions of widespread upheaval and discord when in many cases the spectacular and the sensational are very narrow-based issues.

Obviously, these impressions are not created intentionally but develop over time.  There seems to be limited research on the impact of television and the place it plays in value-shifts and a growing illiteracy rate.  The role television has played in generating change in more insular societies, e.g. Eastern Europe, needs to be addressed and evaluated.  With such research in hand, the use of television and broadcasting in effecting positive change could be significant.

The Community project outlined above demonstrated for us many unconventional uses of television and the impact it can have on attitudes and learning.  In many ways, ours was a small project, yet it clearly indicates that television and communications can have a positive impact on community development. We demonstrated for ourselves that television can provide learning tools for laypersons with neither technical knowledge nor broadcasting experience.

The need for experimentation, research and pilot projects is critical if we are to identify other positive uses for this medium.  The development of linkages between broadcasters, academics, business and community is essential if we are to develop the full potential of the power of the television and telecommunications resources.  It is only through such pilot and demonstration processes that we will find ultimate solutions to our present dilemmas in education, development and economics.

The fundamental issue that has to be addressed in the development process is that of the enhancement of the potential of our human resources.  This not only applies to those in educational and training programs but to whole communities as life-long learning becomes more of a reality.  We must provide different mechanisms to address the varied issues and levels of learning and knowledge that are being required.  Education, based in reality, must be made more accessible.  The first step is awareness.

Telecommunications, television and satellite communications are the tools of the future.  Further development, fine tuning and utilization are required.  The challenge will be – through innovation and experimentation – to break down barriers of conventional thinking and to open up opportunities for the use of these powerful tools.  And these tools are not the property of those who live in urban areas; they are available to all communities, large or small.   What is required for this new education is a different style of thinking. Risks have to be taken, and, most of all, there must be participation by as many forces as can be rallied.  Education must indeed be recognized as the key to economic re-development.  That is a responsibility which we all share.

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